Textiles Home | Print | Digital Print |
Print | 19: Identifying Fibres |

Fibre Classification


Natural Fibres


Cellulosic Fibres

Protein Fibres

Seed Hairs eg Cotton
Leaf fibres eg Sisal
Bast fibres e.g. Linen Jute Ramie Hemp
Fruit or Nut Fibres eg Coir

Wool and Silk
Mohair
Angora
Cashmere

 

Semi Natural Fibres


From Regenerated Cellulosic (Wood Pulp)

Viscose Rayon
Tencel
Acetate Rayon
Triacetate Rayon

 

Synthetic Fibres


Made from oil base

Polyester
Terylene
Nylon (Polymide)
Acrylic

 

Identifying Cellulosic Fibres
Burning Test

Name
Source
Near Flame
In Flame
Residue
Ordour
Type of Dye
Affinity
Cotton
Gossypium:
Cotton boll
Scorches
Catches fire
Burns quickly yellow flame
Grey Ash
Burnt paper
Procions
Good
Cotton
(Mercerised)
As above
As above
As above
Black Ash
Burnt paper
As above
Very Good
Flax (Linen)
Linum:
Flax Plant stem
Scorches catches fire
Burns quickly yellow flame
Smoulders grey ash
Burnt paper
As above but difficult to dye evenly
Poor
Jute
Jute plant steam
Scorches catches fire
Burns quickly yellow flame
Smoulders black ash
Burnt paper
Procions or Acid
Good but may fade
Sisal
Sisal plant leaf
Catches fire
Burns readily Orange flame Blue smoke
White Ash
Burnt paper
Procions or Acid
Very Good but apt to fade
Ramie
Chinese nettle or Chinese grass stem
Catches fire
Burns readily Orange flame Blue smoke
Black or Grey Ash
Burnt paper
As for Cotton
Good
Hemp
Cannabis sativa or Cannabis indica stem
Begins to burn
Burns readily Yellow flame
White Ash
Burnt paper
Procions or Acid
Good

 

Identifying Protein Fibres
Burning Test

Name
Source
Near Flame
In Flame
Residue
Ordour
Type of Dye
Affinity
Wool
Sheep
Smoulders
Burns steadily slight sizzle blue/grey smoke
Crisp Black inflated bead easily crushed
Burnt Hair
Acid dyes
Very Good
Mohair
Angora goat
As for Wool
As for Wool
As for Wool
As for Wool
Acid dyes
Excellent
Alpaca
South American camel, Llama family
As for Wool
As for Wool
As for Wool
As for Wool
As for Wool
Good
Cashmere
Tibetan or Kashmir goat
As for Wool
As for Wool
As for Wool
As for Wool
As for Wool
Very Good
Angora
Angora rabbit
As for Wool
As for Wool
As for Wool
As for Wool
As for Wool
Good
Samoyed, Huskey etc
Dog
As for Wool
As for Wool
As for Wool
As for Wool
As for Wool
Good
Silk Bombyx
Cultivated silkworm
Smoulders
Burns readily slight sizzle
Crisp Black inflated mass
As for Wool
Acid dyes, Procions, Direct & Basics
Excellent
Silk
Wild Silkworm
As above
As above
As above
As for Wool
As above
Excellent

 

Identifying Man Made Fibres
Burning Test

Name
Source
Near Flame
In Flame
Residue
Ordour
Type of Dye
Affinity
Rayon

Viscose:
Wood pulp

Burns
Burns quickly yellow flame
Feathery Ash
Burnt paper
Disperse
Good
Acetate Rayon
Acetate: wood pulp
Melts
Splutters & burns quickly
Irregular charred bead
Burnt paper.
Vinegar
Disperse
Fairly Good
Tricel Arnel
Tri-acetate: wood pulp acid
Shrinks & fuses
Burns quickly
Melts & drips
As above
As above
Disperse
Fairly Good
Nylon
Polymide: coal & petroleum
Shrinks
Melts, drips & froths
Hard greyish fawn bead
-------

Disperse

Good
Terylene
Polyester: petrolium & anti-freeze
Shrinks
Softens & melts, black smoke with fawn bead
Hard irregular bead
-------
Disperse
Needs high temperatures
Courtelle, Acrilan
Orlon
Acrylic: Ammonia propylene & oxygen
Shrinks & melts
Splutters & burns rapidly
Hard Black irregular bead
-------

Disperse

Good

 

Back to the Print Content Page >>