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Dyeing Fabric/Yarn


When dyeing any fabric/yarn the amount of dye required is always determined by the dry weight of the fabric/yarn. The dry weight of the fabric/yarn is multiplied by the % of shade required, e.g.

0.1-0.5% (gm)
  For pale shades
0.5- 1% (gm)
  For medium shades
1-2% (gms)
  For deep shades
 

the higher the % the darker the shade. This figure is then divided by 100

e.g.
 
i.e.
  = 6gms Dye for a deep shade

It is impossible to repeat a colour if the dye is not accurately weighed out.
Not all fabrics are prepared for dyeing or printing, some cheaper fabrics still have oils, gums and finishes in them, which were added during or after the spinning and weaving processes. These gums can resist the dye and cause patchiness and reduce the effectiveness of their fastness to light and washing.
The oils and gums can be removed by washing the fabric at 90°C with 100gms of washing soda crystals.

 

Dyeing with Procion Dyes
For Cotton, Linen Viscose and Rayon

There are two types of Procion Dyes suitable for dyeing fabrics:

Procion M (Cold water dyes)
Procion H (Hot water dyes)
Do not mix M’s and H’s together

Although the M range are known as cold water dyes, they can be heated gently to a maximum of 40°C. The H range can be heated to a maximum of 90°C
Boiling Procions destroys the dye and if they are heated up too quickly the fabric will not take up all the dye and the results will be pale shades.

Dyeing is normally carried out using a liquor: goods ratio of 30:1
i.e. 100gms fabric in 3 litres of water.

1 Weigh dry fabric
2 Choose % of shade required i.e.
    0.1-0.5% (gm) For pale shades
    0.5- 1% (gm) For medium shades
    1-2% (gms) For deep shades
3 Calculate amount of dye required
 
e.g.
 
i.e.
= 2gms Dye for a deep shade
4 Paste weighed dye with cold water.
5 Soak fabric thoroughly in cold water.
6 Make up dye bath using the liquor: goods ratio of 30:1
i.e. 100gms fabric in 3 litres water.
 
7 Add pasted dye. Stir thoroughly then add the soaked fabric and dye for 10-15 mins
8 Add 40gms of common salt for every 1 litre of water in the dye bath in gradual
quantities over a 15 min period.
 
9 Heat slowly (if needed) to the correct temperature
(20°C for M dyes and 80°C for H dyes)
 
10 Add 10gms of washing soda crystals or 4gms of Sodium Carbonate for every 1 litre
of water in the dye bath. Turn the material well for 1 hour.
 
11 Remove fabric from dye bath and rinse thoroughly in cold or warm water until it becomes reasonably clear and then treat in a solution containing 1-2 parts liquid detergent per litre of water at 60°C for 15 minutes to remove any residual
un-reacted dyestuff, followed by a thorough rinse in cold water
 

 

Dyeing with Acid Dyes
For Wool and Silk

Acid dyes are a wide range of bright colours, which are fully inter-mixable

Dyeing is normally carried out using a liquor: goods ratio of 50:1
i.e. 100gms fabric in 5 litres of hot water.

1 Weigh dry fabric
2 Choose % of shade required i.e.
    0.1-0.5% (gm) For pale shades
    0.5- 1% (gm) For medium shades
    1-2% (gms) For deep shades
3 Calculate amount of dye required
 
e.g.
 
i.e.
= 2gms Dye for a deep shade
4 Paste weighed dye with hot water from the tap.
5 Soak fabric thoroughly in warm water.
6 Make up dye bath using the liquor: goods ratio of 50:1
i.e. 100gms fabric in 5 litres water.
 
7 Add Glauber's salt (Sodium Sulphate) at 10gms for every 100gms of fibre.
8 Add pasted dye. Stir thoroughly then add the pre soaked fibre.
9 Heat the dye bath slowly and steadily to reach boiling point in 20mins.
Note however, that with silk the temperature should not rise above 80°C
 
10 Add Acetic Acid, equivalent of 50mls per 100 grams of dry fibre.
11 Simmer for 30mins
12 Remove fabric from dye bath and rinse thoroughly in cold or warm water until it becomes reasonably clear and then treat in a solution containing 1-2 parts liquid detergent per litre of water at 60°C for 15 minutes to remove any residual
un-reacted dyestuff, followed by a thorough rinse in cold water.
 

If you are dyeing fleece be careful not to boil it or it will felt. You must also cool down the water gradually when dyeing is complete.

 

Dyeing with Disperse Dyes
For Acrylic, Nylon & Polyester

Acid dyes are a wide range of bright colours, which are fully inter-mixable

Dyeing is normally carried out using a liquor: goods ratio of 50:1
i.e. 100gms fabric in 5 litres of hot water.

1 Weigh dry fabric
2 Choose % of shade required i.e.
    0.1-1% (gm) For pale shades
    1-2% (gm) For medium shades
    2-4% (gms) For deep shades
3 Calculate amount of dye required
 
e.g.
 
i.e.
= 4gms Dye for a deep shade
4 The required amount of dyestuff is stirred into 15 times its own weight of
water and allowed to stand for 10 – 15 minutes with occasional stirring.
 
5 Soak fabric thoroughly in warm water.
6 Make up dye bath @ 50°C using the liquor: goods ratio of 50:1
i.e. 100gms fabric in 5 litres of hot water
 
7 Make up dye bath @ 50°C using the liquor: goods ratio of 50:1
i.e. 100gms fabric in 5 litres of hot water
 
8 Add pasted dye. Stir thoroughly then add the pre soaked fibre.
9 Heat the bath very slowly to reach boiling point in about 30mins, then reduce the
temperature to simmering.
 
10 Simmer at or just under boiling for 30mins
11 When dyeing is complete, remove the dye bath from the heat and allow the fibres
to cool naturally in the dye liquor until they can be handled comfortably.
 
12 Remove fabric from dye bath and rinse thoroughly in cold or warm water until it
becomes reasonably clear and then treat in a solution containing 1-2 parts liquid
detergent per litre of water at 60°C for 15 minutes to remove any residual
un-reacted dyestuff, followed by a thorough rinse in cold water.
 

 

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